Sources & Citations


Addington, Lynn A. “Students’ Fear after Columbine: Findings from a Randomized Experiment.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 19, no. 4 (2003): 367-87. Accessed December 22, 2020.

“Columbine Shooter’s Mother: I Carry Him ‘Everywhere I Go, Always’.” NPR, NPR, 16 Feb. 2016,

Cullen, Dave. Columbine. Grand Central Publishing, 2010.

Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence. (2020). The Public Health Approach to Gun Violence Prevention.

Fast, Jonathan D. “After Columbine: How People Mourn Sudden Death.” Social Work 48, no. 4 (2003): 484-91.

Jillian Lloyd Special to The Christian,Science Monitor. 1999. A community ‘surrounded by love’: With poems and prayers, denver residents give support after columbine high shooting. The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current File), Apr 23.

LARKIN, RALPH W. “THE OTHER COLUMBINE.” In Comprehending Columbine, 82-121. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007. Accessed December 22, 2020.

Minor, Andrea Dukakis and Nathaniel. “After Columbine, President Clinton Set A New Standard As ‘Consoler In Chief’ – And He’s Still Thinking About The Survivors.” Colorado Public Radio, Colorado Public Radio, 12 Aug. 2019,

Pike, Sarah M. “Dark Teens and Born-Again Martyrs: Captivity Narratives after Columbine.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 77, no. 3 (2009): 647-79. Accessed December 22, 2020.

Sakas, Michael Elizabeth. “In 1999, Columbine Felt Like A Galvanizing Moment For Gun Control.” NPR, NPR, 20 Apr. 2018,

TOM KENWORTHY Washington Post,Staff Writer. 1999. Columbine tragedy claims another victim: Six months later, memory of shootings drives wounded girl’s mother to suicide. The Washington Post (1974-Current File), Oct 24.