Hoffman et al Summary Tweets

U-Th technology formulates date range for wall paintings discovered in ?? caves. ? older than ?by 2⃣0⃣ky. ?? by Neanderthals

Critics claim ?? made by chance, but these ⛎♉♐??➗➕ need ??and to be ? before ?‍?. art was #intentional

This cave ? tells ?‍??‍? that Neanderthals were ?to?‍? with ?4⃣↕*⃣ℹ?, gives ??‍♂️ hope of future ⚰⚱around ?

Will Larson – Hoffman et al Tweets

New U-Th dating tech show cave art in Spain 20ka older than first humans in Europe and must be made by Neanderthals. #NeanderthalsUseSymbols

Uranium-Thorium dating uses carbon sample of art layer to find age. Red paint and handprints show deliberate art creation at 3 cave sites.

Neanderthal artists signify long history of symbolic behavior older than 64.8kya, capable of technology once thought unique to H. sapiens.

Turney and Brown

Neolithic farmers lived on continental shelf formed by Bosporus Sill…  ~ 8.4 KYa Laurentide Ice Sheet collapse → fresh ? pulse into ◼️ Sea

Freshwater pluse ? ⬆️ (~1.4m), flooded ◼️ Sea, breached Bosporus Sill & displaced populations #farmeronthemove #seafarers #gowest

Neolithic displacement caused migration along Mediterranean & then up thru continental Europe, spreading the practice of farming w/ them

Turney and Brown

Laurentide ❄ sheet collapse into N. Atlantic ≈8.5kya. Huge 1.4m ? in ?? levels and ? cooling. resulting ⚫? floods Bosporus Sill farmlands

Radio C ? + core sampling suggests ??‍? ❤ coastal sites. homeless farmers spread their culture and practices thru N Mediterranean #farmtotable

High probability that estimated 145,000 Neolithic people displaced from these ⚫? ??‍?lands drove the ? of ??‍? in Europe also ≈8kya #innovation

Brown and Turney Article -Andrew Brenner

Laurentide Ice sheet collapsed sending ❄️? throughout the ? between 8350 and 8230 cal yr BP. ? rose enough to flood Black Sea ~1.4m

? rise ?? loss for ~4022 ? near Mediterranean Sea + ~145,000 near Black Sea,?‍♂️at a rate of ~4300 ? per year from altered coastline

Migration ? leading to ?‍?? in Europe 8.2-7.7 cal yr BP. Second ?‍?? seen ~5.7 cal yr BP, delay due to ??‍♀️ difficulties

AllieRutz Turney and Brown Article

◼️? flooding ➕ ⬇️ farming ➕ pop. pressure = ??‍???‍???‍???‍?↗️?? #dontbesalty #theflooriswet #thiscornissoggy

Farmers push into Europe, disrupt hunter/gatherers, challenge social order + 4ever change the culture #nicetomeetyou #wereyournewneighbors

Possibly 145,000 Neolithic ? displaced when Bosporus Sill breaches #byebyeOGblacksea #radiocarbondatingrocks #massmigrationmess

Hoffmann et al. – Cave Art

New #U-Th #DatingTechniques better dates #CaveArt AND revealed ?? in ?? cave sites La Paniega & Maltravieso & Doña Trinidad are > 64.8 KYr !

#CaveArt in #IberianPeninsula > 64.8 KYr
Emergence of #ModernHumansInEurope = 40-45 KYr
SO, ?? PREDATES arrival of modern ??

? ?  w/ ?⚫ pigment & ???? drawings = symbolic representation & abstract thought… Neanderthals more similar to us than we thought!


Second Assignment (Hoffmann article)

Uranium-thorium dating claims cave art of three Iberian sites is older than 64.8ka (20ka before modern humans). Raises ❓s on the authorship of the paintings.

U-Th dates max. age from layer under the pigment and min. age from carbonate on top. The sites include red ✋ stencils, shapes & animals.

The art is coeval with Neandertals in Iberia, and predates the arrival of MHs. Evidence of #deliberateNeandertalsymbolism prior to interspecial coexistence.

Brown & Turney tweets- Dachille

#ByeBye Laurentide ice sheet and hello #BigFlood of the Black Sea –> displaced thousands living in coastal & low-lying areas preferable for early farmers

⇪ ?levels by 1.4m & flooding in early Holocene SHOOK the landscape, pushed people in2 new & more populated areas- now competing for new farming land? #TheEndOfAnEra

No new Neolithic sites established during flooding but ? in the thousands of yrs that followed = MASS migration due 2 environmental change #FoodForThought?

Turney and Brown

When the ocean was ⬇ the ⬛ sea was a fresh water lake protected from the ocean by a ridge. The first Neolithic farmers in Europe settled along on its shores ~9.2 kyr ago

~8.5 kyr ago there was a #icesheetcollapse in N. America that led to a surge of water that ⬆ ?  sea levels by up to 1.4 m. The ocean then flooded the lake, creating the ⬛ sea

The #risingseas displaced the Neolithic farming populations and forced a mass migration that brought Neolithic farming to mainland Europe #SLR #noah’sflood